Given a sorted array of integers, find floor and ceil of a given number in it. The floor and ceil map the given number to the largest previous or the smallest following integer, respectively.

More precisely, for a number x `floor(x)`

is the largest integer less than or equal to x and `ceiling(x)`

is the smallest integer greater than or equal to x. For example,

**Input: **

A[] = [1, 4, 6, 8, 9]

Number – 0 to 10

`Output:`

Number 0 -> ceiling is 1, floor is -1

Number 1 -> ceiling is 1, floor is 1

Number 2 -> ceiling is 4, floor is 1

Number 3 -> ceiling is 4, floor is 1

Number 4 -> ceiling is 4, floor is 4

Number 5 -> ceiling is 6, floor is 4

Number 6 -> ceiling is 6, floor is 6

Number 7 -> ceiling is 8, floor is 6

Number 8 -> ceiling is 8, floor is 8

Number 9 -> ceiling is 9, floor is 9

Number 10 -> ceiling is -1, floor is 9

A simple solution would be to run a linear search on the array and find the largest integer in the array less than or equal to x and the smallest integer in the array greater than or equal to x. That would be the floor and ceiling of number x respectively. The problem with this approach is that its worst case time complexity is `O(n)`

.

We can easily solve this problem in `O(log(n))`

time by modifying Binary Search Algorithm. The basic idea remains the same. We find mid and recurse for left or right sub-array based on comparison result with the given number. Below is the complete algorithm –

**findCeil(A[low, high], x)**

Initialize ceil to -1 and iterate till our search space is exhausted

- if x is equal to mid element, it is the ceil
- if x is less than the mid element, ceil exists in the sub-array
`A[low..mid]`

. We update ceil to the mid element and reduce our search space to left subarray`A[low..mid-1]`

- if x is more than the mid element, ceil exists in the right sub-array
`A[mid+1..high]`

**findFloor(A[low, high], x)**

Initialize floor to -1 and iterate till our search space is exhausted

- if x is equal to mid element, it is the floor
- if x is less than the mid element, floor exists in the left sub-array
`A[low..mid-1]`

- if x is more than the mid element, floor exists in the sub-array
`A[mid..high]`

. We update floor to the mid element and reduce our search space to right subarray`A[mid+1..high]`

## C

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#include <stdio.h> // Function to find ceil of x in sorted array arr[0..n-1] // i.e. smallest integer greater than or equal to x int getCeil(int arr[], int n, int x) { // search space is A[low..high] int low = 0, high = n - 1, mid; // initialize ceil to -1 int ceil = -1; // iterate till search space contains at-least one element while (low <= high) { // find the mid value in the search space mid = (low + high) / 2; // if x is equal to mid element, it is the ceil if (arr[mid] == x) return arr[mid]; // if x is less than the mid element, ceil exists in the // sub-array A[low..mid]. We update ceil to the mid element // and reduce our search space to left subarray A[low..mid-1] else if (x < arr[mid]) { ceil = arr[mid]; high = mid - 1; } // if x is more than the mid element, ceil exists in the // right sub-array A[mid+1..high] else low = mid + 1; } return ceil; } // Function to find floor of x in sorted array arr[0..n-1] // i.e. largest integer less than or equal to x int getFloor(int arr[], int n, int x) { int low = 0, high = n - 1, mid; // initialize floor to -1 int floor = -1; // iterate till search space contains at-least one element while (low <= high) { // find the mid value in the search space mid = (low + high) / 2; // if x is equal to mid element, it is the floor if (arr[mid] == x) return arr[mid]; // if x is less than the mid element, floor exists in the left // sub-array A[low..mid-1] else if (x < arr[mid]) high = mid - 1; // if x is more than the mid element, floor exists in the // sub-array A[mid..high]. We update floor to the mid element // and reduce our search space to right subarray A[mid+1..high] else { floor = arr[mid]; low = mid + 1; } } return floor; } // Find Floor and Ceil of a number in a sorted array int main(void) { int arr[] = { 1, 4, 6, 8, 9 }; int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]); for (int i = 0; i <= 10; i++) { printf("Number %d -> ", i); printf("ceiling is %d, ", getCeil(arr, n, i)); printf("floor is %d\n", getFloor(arr, n, i)); } return 0; } |

## Java

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class CeilFloor { // Function to find ceil of x in sorted array A[] // i.e. smallest integer greater than or equal to x public static int getCeil(int[] A, int x) { // search space is A[left..right] int left = 0, right = A.length - 1; // initialize ceil to -1 int ceil = -1; // iterate till search space contains at-least one element while (left <= right) { // find the mid value in the search space int mid = (left + right) / 2; // if x is equal to mid element, it is the ceil if (A[mid] == x) { return A[mid]; } // if x is less than the mid element, ceil exists in the // sub-array A[left..mid]. We update ceil to the mid element // and reduce our search space to left subarray A[left..mid-1] else if (x < A[mid]) { ceil = A[mid]; right = mid - 1; } // if x is more than the mid element, ceil exists in the // right sub-array A[mid+1..right] else left = mid + 1; } return ceil; } // Function to find floor of x in sorted array A[] // i.e. largest integer less than or equal to x public static int getFloor(int[] A, int x) { int left = 0, right = A.length - 1; // initialize floor to -1 int floor = -1; // iterate till search space contains at-least one element while (left <= right) { // find the mid value in the search space int mid = (left + right) / 2; // if x is equal to mid element, it is the floor if (A[mid] == x) { return A[mid]; } // if x is less than the mid element, floor exists in the left // sub-array A[left..mid-1] else if (x < A[mid]) { right = mid - 1; } // if x is more than the mid element, floor exists in the // sub-array A[mid..right]. We update floor to the mid element // and reduce our search space to right subarray A[mid+1..right] else { floor = A[mid]; left = mid + 1; } } return floor; } public static void main(String[] args) { int[] A = { 1, 4, 6, 8, 9 }; for (int i = 0; i <= 10; i++) { System.out.print("Number " + i + " -> "); System.out.println("ceiling is " + getCeil(A, i) + ", floor is " + getFloor(A, i)); } } } |

`Output:`

Number 0 -> ceiling is 1, floor is -1

Number 1 -> ceiling is 1, floor is 1

Number 2 -> ceiling is 4, floor is 1

Number 3 -> ceiling is 4, floor is 1

Number 4 -> ceiling is 4, floor is 4

Number 5 -> ceiling is 6, floor is 4

Number 6 -> ceiling is 6, floor is 6

Number 7 -> ceiling is 8, floor is 6

Number 8 -> ceiling is 8, floor is 8

Number 9 -> ceiling is 9, floor is 9

Number 10 -> ceiling is -1, floor is 9

The time complexity of above solution is `O(log(n))`

and auxiliary space used by the program is `O(1)`

.

**Exercise:** Write recursive solution to find Floor and Ceil of a number

**Thanks for reading.**

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